Time goals on the bike are also massively influenced by factors you cannot control: wind, road surface, terrain, etc. I encourage athletes to set power or heart rate ceiling numbers not to exceed. For most age-group athletes, a ceiling of 85 percent of functional threshold power (FTP) works well. If you are racing by heart rate, the ceiling should also be around 85 percent of your maximum heart rate on the bike. These are ceiling numbers, not targets—learning what “feels” right is important.